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Teaching Prevention 2019

4/1/2019 » 4/3/2019
2019 Paul Ambrose Scholars Symposium



American Journal of Preventive Medicine
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The American Journal of Preventive Medicine is the official journal of the Association for Prevention Teaching and Research. It publishes articles in the areas of prevention research, teaching, practice and policy. Original research is published on interventions aimed at the prevention of chronic and acute disease and the promotion of individual and community health. Of particular emphasis are papers that address the primary and secondary prevention of important clinical, behavioral and public health issues such as injury and violence, infectious disease, women's health, smoking, sedentary behaviors and physical activity, nutrition, diabetes, obesity, and alcohol and drug abuse.

Papers also address educational initiatives aimed at improving the ability of health professionals to provide effective clinical prevention and public health services. Papers on health services research pertinent to prevention and public health are also published. Additionally, the journal publishes official policy statements from the two co-sponsoring organizations, review articles, media reviews, and editorials. Finally, the journal periodically publishes supplements and special theme issues devoted to areas of current interest to the prevention community. 


Journal Ranking 

AJPM ranks in the top 10 percent of journals in the Public, Environmental and Occupational Health category of Thomson Reuters' Journal Citation Report.


Elsevier is the world’s leading provider of science and health information, serving more than 30 million scientists, students and health and information professionals worldwide.

Trends and Correlates of Youth Violence-Prevention Program Participation, 2002–2016Open in a New Window

Adolescent participation in violence-prevention programming is critical in addressing the nation's elevated rates of youth fighting and violence. However, little is known about the secular trends and correlates of violence-prevention program participation in the U.S. Using national data, the authors examined the year-by-year trends and correlates of participation among American adolescents over a 15-year span.


Pathways From Food Insecurity to Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration Among Peri-Urban Men in South AfricaOpen in a New Window

Although poverty is sometimes seen as a driver of intimate partner violence victimization, less is known about how it intersects with men's violence perpetration. Food insecurity is a sensitive marker of poverty that may have unique mechanisms leading to men's intimate partner violence perpetration given its association with gender roles and men “providing for the family.”


A Systematic Review of Trials to Improve Child Outcomes Associated With Adverse Childhood ExperiencesOpen in a New Window

The purpose of this systematic literature review was to summarize current evidence from RCTs for the efficacy of interventions involving pediatric health care to prevent poor outcomes associated with adverse childhood experiences measured in childhood (C-ACEs).


Association Between State Minimum Wages and Suicide Rates in the U.S.Open in a New Window

The suicide rate in the U.S. has been increasing in recent years. Previous studies have consistently identified financial stress as a contributing factor in suicides. Nevertheless, there has been little research on the effect of economic policies that can alleviate financial stress on suicide rates. The purpose of this study is to determine whether increases in state minimum wages have been associated with changes in state suicide rates.


Mortality Risk Reductions for Replacing Sedentary Time With Physical ActivitiesOpen in a New Window

Excess sitting is a risk factor for early mortality. This may be resulting, at least in part, from the displacement of physical activity with sedentary behaviors. The purpose of this observational study was to examine the mortality risk reductions associated with replacing 30minutes/day sitting for an equivalent duration of light or moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA).


Women's Affordability, Access, and Preventive Care After the Affordable Care ActOpen in a New Window

Women historically have had difficulty maintaining health insurance, obtaining preventive care, and affording care. The objectives of this study were to describe changes in insurance affordability, healthcare access, and preventive care for women of different income levels after implementation of the Affordable Care Act.


Adverse Childhood Experiences and Household Out-of-Pocket Healthcare CostsOpen in a New Window

Adverse childhood experiences are associated with higher risk of common chronic mental and physical illnesses in adulthood, but little evidence exists on whether this influences medical costs or expenses. This study estimated increases in household medical expenses associated with adults’ reported adverse childhood experience scores.


Administrative Military Discharge and Suicidal Ideation Among Post–9/11 VeteransOpen in a New Window

From 2005 to 2016, the Veteran suicide rate increased 25.9%. Reducing this rate is a top priority for the Department of Veterans Affairs. In 2017, a policy change expanded emergent mental health services to include previously ineligible Veterans discharged under other than honorable conditions. To date, research examining the relationship between military discharge type and suicide risk has been limited.


Characteristics of Veteran and Civilian Suicide Decedents: A Sex-Stratified AnalysisOpen in a New Window

Few studies have examined characteristics distinguishing Veteran and civilian suicide decedents. An understanding of unique risk factors for Veteran suicide is critical to develop effective preventive interventions. This is particularly imperative for female Veterans, who have near double the suicide mortality rate of same-aged female civilians. The objectives of this study were to examine whether Veteran and civilian suicide decedents differed on risk factors and suicide-event characteristics, and to determine whether predictors changed based on sex.


Impacts of the Affordable Care Act Dependent Coverage Provision on Young Adults With CancerOpen in a New Window

Evidence through 2012 suggests that the 2010 Affordable Care Act Dependent Coverage Provision, extending dependent insurance coverage eligibility to age 26years, increased young adult insurance coverage and decreased cancer diagnosis stage in young adult cancer patients. This study examines Dependent Coverage Provision–associated changes in insurance coverage and diagnosis stage through 2014 in young adult cancer patients.


State-Level Beer Excise Tax and Firearm Homicide in Adolescents and Young AdultsOpen in a New Window

This study sought to determine the association between changes in state-level beer excise tax and firearm homicide rates among individuals aged 15–34years.


Health Insurance Coverage Among U.S. Workers: Differences by Work Arrangements in 2010 and 2015Open in a New Window

For most Americans, health insurance is obtained through employers. Health insurance coverage can lead to better health outcomes, yet disparities in coverage exist among workers with different sociodemographic and job characteristics. This study compared uninsured rates among workers with different work arrangements.


E-cigarette Use Among Young Adults in the U.S.Open in a New Window

Use of e-cigarettes is increasing among young adults in the U.S. Whether e-cigarette use serves as an aid to smoking reduction or cessation among young adults remains a matter of contention. This analysis examines patterns of e-cigarette use in relation to cigarette smoking in a nationally representative sample of U.S. young adults.


Regular Sunscreen Use and Risk of Mortality: Long-Term Follow-up of a Skin Cancer Prevention TrialOpen in a New Window

Sunscreen is widely used to protect the skin from harmful effects of sun exposure. However, there are concerns that sunscreens may negatively affect overall health. Evidence of the general safety of long-term regular sunscreen use is therefore needed.


Food Security and 10-Year Cardiovascular Disease Risk Among U.S. AdultsOpen in a New Window

Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of mortality in the U.S. Although the risk of cardiovascular disease can be mitigated substantially by following a healthy lifestyle, adhering to a healthy diet and other healthy behaviors are limited by reduced food security. This study aims to determine the association between food security and cardiovascular disease risk.


Fall Prevention Self-Management Among Older Adults: A Systematic ReviewOpen in a New Window

Adequate self-management could minimize the impact of falls in older adults. The efficacy of fall prevention self-management interventions has been widely studied, yet little is known about why some older adults engage in fall prevention self-management actions and behaviors, whereas others do not. Through a systematic review of fall prevention self-management studies, this study identified characteristics and the personal, social, and environmental factors of older adults who engage in self-management actions and behaviors.


Public Health Workforce Development Needs: A National Assessment of Executives’ PerspectivesOpen in a New Window

Workforce development is one of the ten essential public health services. Recent studies have better characterized individual worker perceptions regarding workforce interests and needs, but gaps remain around workforce needs from program managers’ perspectives. This study characterized management perspectives regarding subordinate's abilities and training needs and perceived challenges to recruitment and retention.


Non-clinical Prevention Opportunities and Waste in the U.S. Healthcare SystemOpen in a New Window

The National Academy of Medicine (formerly known as the Institute of Medicine) estimated in 2010 that wasteful healthcare spending cumulatively totaled approximately $765 billion per year, or nearly one third of all healthcare spending.1 Adjusting to 2016 healthcare expenditure totals,2 unnecessary medical spending costs the average American more than $3,400 per year. Yet, the authors argue that even this sizable figure understates the magnitude of healthcare waste as it excludes a large array of missed upstream prevention opportunities.


U.S. Emergency Department Visits Resulting From Nonmedical Use of Pharmaceuticals, 2016Open in a New Window

National data on morbidity from nonmedical use of pharmaceuticals are limited. This study used nationally representative, public health surveillance data to characterize U.S. emergency department visits for acute harms from nonmedical use of pharmaceuticals and to guide prevention efforts.


A Critical Assessment of the Adverse Childhood Experiences Study at 20 YearsOpen in a New Window

This year marks the 20th anniversary of publication in this journal of the first of many articles on the adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) research by Drs. Felitti, Anda, and colleagues.1 As we celebrate the impact of this seminal research, it is also imperative to assess critically its serious limitations: an unrepresentative study population and narrow operationalization of childhood adversity lead to undercounting adverse experiences and misrepresenting their social distribution. Placing ACEs research—and the movement it has generated—in the wider contexts provided by the social determinants of health framework,2 and by the rapidly growing biology and neuroscience of early childhood adversity,3–5 can enrich ACEs research and extend its impact to shaping primary prevention policies that address social and economic conditions producing adversity.


Distracted Driving, Visual Inattention, and Crash Risk Among Teenage DriversOpen in a New Window

Distracted driving resulting from secondary task engagement is a major contributing factor to teenage drivers’ crash risk. This study aims to determine the extent to which visual inattention while engaging in distracting secondary tasks contributes to teenage drivers’ crash risk.


Suicides Among Lesbian and Gay Male Individuals: Findings From the National Violent Death Reporting SystemOpen in a New Window

Information regarding the epidemiology of suicide among lesbian and gay male individuals is limited, and comprehensive information is needed. This study seeks to describe the characteristics and precipitating circumstances of suicide among lesbian and gay male decedents when compared with non-lesbian and non-gay male decedents.


Colorectal and Breast Cancer Screening Status for People in Ontario Provincial Correctional FacilitiesOpen in a New Window

Primary care represents an opportunity to improve health for people who experience imprisonment, and screening for colorectal and breast cancer indicate primary care quality. The study objectives were to examine the proportion of people released from provincial correctional facilities who were overdue for colorectal or breast cancer screening on admission to the correctional facility and who were still overdue after 3 years, and to compare findings with data for the general population.


Facilitators and Barriers to Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Incentive Use: Findings From a Clinic Intervention for Low-Income PatientsOpen in a New Window

Healthy food incentives matching Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits spent on fruits and vegetables subsidize increased produce consumption among low-income individuals at risk for food insecurity and diet-related disease. Yet many eligible participants do not use these incentives, in part because of limited awareness. This study examined the acceptability and impact of a primary care–based informational intervention on facilitators and barriers to use of the statewide SNAP incentive program Double Up Food Bucks.


Harnessing the Power of Food Labels for Public HealthOpen in a New Window

Change is coming to food labeling. Rules that require calorie content on menus at chain restaurants, movie theaters, and similar venues went into effect in early May 2018. A revised Nutrition Facts label, including more prominent calorie listings, added sugars, and updated serving sizes, is already appearing on food packages and will be required by 2020 and 2021, depending on company size. Against this backdrop, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) initiated a Nutrition Innovation Strategy in July 2018, under which the agency is seeking public comments on several strategies intended to modernize food labels.


Exercise Videogames, Physical Activity, and Health: Wii Heart Fitness: A Randomized Clinical TrialOpen in a New Window

Adults who engage in regular physical activity have lower rates of morbidity and mortality than those who do not. Exercise videogames may offer an attractive, sustainable alternative or supplement to traditional modes of exercise. This study compared exercise videogames with standard exercise modalities for improving uptake and maintenance of moderate to vigorous physical activity, and health risk indices.


Influenza Vaccination Coverage Among Pregnant Women in the U.S., 2012–2015Open in a New Window

Pregnant women are at increased risk for severe illness from influenza and influenza-related complications. Vaccinating pregnant women is the primary strategy to protect them and their infants from influenza. This study aims to assess influenza vaccination coverage during three influenza seasons (2012–2015) from a national probability-based sampling survey and evaluate potential factors that influence vaccination uptake among pregnant women.


Urban–Rural Differences in Older Adult Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Comparative StudiesOpen in a New Window

Depression among older adults (aged 60 years or older) is a problem that could be exacerbated by global trends in urbanization and population aging. The study purpose was to assess whether urban, relative to rural, residence is associated with depression among older adults and whether associations differ in countries with developed versus developing economies.


The Emerging Identity of the Preventive Medicine Specialty: A Model for the Population Health TransitionOpen in a New Window

The emergent identity of the specialty area of public health and general preventive medicine (PH-GPM),1 referred to as preventive medicine (PM) in this paper, spawns from several historical and contemporary trends. The tripartite birth of the specialty, resulting in its three specialty areas with distinct names (i.e., PH and aerospace medicine in 1949, occupational medicine in 1953, GPM in 1957, and its merger with PH in 1983 for examination purposes),2 makes any unified branding attempt challenging.


Longitudinal Sedentary Time Among Females Aged 17 to 23 YearsOpen in a New Window

Time spent in sedentary behaviors is a newer risk factor for poor cardiometabolic health. This study examined longitudinal correlates of sedentary time among a cohort of females from about age 17 to age 23 years.


Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Interventions in the U.S.: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysisOpen in a New Window

Despite current recommendations, human papillomavirus vaccine uptake remains low. A systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the effectiveness of interventions targeting human papillomavirus vaccine initiation and completion among children, adolescents, and young adults aged 9–26 years.


Positive Parenting Matters in the Face of Early AdversityOpen in a New Window

A negative relationship between adverse childhood experiences and both physical and mental health in adulthood is well established, as is the positive impact of parenting on child development and future health. However, few studies have investigated unique influences of adverse childhood experiences and positive parenting together within a large, diverse early childhood sample.


Compressed Influenza Vaccination in U.S. Older Adults: A Decision AnalysisOpen in a New Window

Tradeoffs exist between efforts to increase influenza vaccine uptake, including early season vaccination, and potential decreased vaccine effectiveness if protection wanes during influenza season. U.S. older adults increasingly receive vaccination before October. Influenza illness peaks vary from December to April.


Impact of Risk Stratification on Referrals and Uptake of Wraparound Services That Address Social Determinants: A Stepped Wedged TrialOpen in a New Window

Social determinants of health are critical drivers of health status and cost, but are infrequently screened or addressed in primary care settings. Systematic approaches to identifying individuals with unmet social determinants needs could better support practice workflows and linkages of patients to services. A pilot study examined the effect of a risk-stratification tool on referrals to services that address social determinants in an urban safety-net population.


National Trends in Human Papillomavirus Awareness and Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus–Related CancersOpen in a New Window

The President's Cancer Panel released a report in 2014 calling for communication strategies to promote the human papillomavirus vaccine among males and females. The purpose of this study was to (1) estimate changes in human papillomavirus awareness and knowledge of human papillomavirus–related cancers from 2014 to 2017 using a nationally representative survey of adults in the U.S. and (2) identify differences in population subgroups that showed significant changes in human papillomavirus awareness and knowledge of human papillomavirus–related cancers.


Physical Activity and Social Behaviors of Urban Children in Green PlaygroundsOpen in a New Window

Nature exposure is associated with many wellbeing benefits. However, the influence of green space on the physical activity and social behaviors of children is not completely understood. The purpose of the study was to complete a stepwise impact evaluation of a large-scale playground greening project at a Title 1 elementary school in Los Angeles, California.


Workplace Smoke-Free Policies and Cessation Programs Among U.S. Working AdultsOpen in a New Window

Workplace tobacco control interventions reduce smoking and secondhand smoke exposure among U.S. workers. Data on smoke-free workplace policy coverage and cessation programs by industry and occupation are limited. This study assessed smoke-free workplace policies and employer-offered cessation programs among U.S. workers, by industry and occupation.


The Relationship Between Hearing Loss and Substance Use Disorders Among Adults in the U.S.Open in a New Window

Hearing loss is common and associated with poorer health and impeded communication. Little is known about the association between hearing loss and substance use disorders in the general population. The objective of this study was to assess substance use disorder prevalence among individuals with hearing loss, versus those without hearing loss, in a nationally representative sample of adults.


Impact of Perceived Racism on Healthcare Access Among Older Minority AdultsOpen in a New Window

Older minority individuals are less likely to receive adequate health care than their white counterparts. This study investigates whether perceived racism is associated with delayed/forgone care among minority older adults, and whether poor doctor communication mediates this relationship.


Kenneth W. Kizer, MD, MPH. Advancing Tobacco Control Among Medicaid Beneficiaries: A Historical Perspective and Call to Action. Am J Prev Med. 2018;55(6S2):S222–S226.Open in a New Window

The editorial office has been informed of the following corrections.


April Roeseler, BSN, MSPH, Neal Kohatsu MD, MPH. Advancing Smoking Cessation in California's Medicaid Population. Am J Prev Med. 2018;55(6S2):S126–S129.Open in a New Window

The editorial office has been informed of the following corrections.


Acknowledgments for AJPM Volumes 54 and 55Open in a New Window

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