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CPPH Curriculum Framework: Component 1

 Component 1: Foundations of Population Health

1.     Descriptive Epidemiology: The Health of Populations

  Topic Areas                                                                        Illustrative Examples

A. Burden of disease and injury

Morbidity and mortality

B. Course of disease and injury

Incidence, prevalence, case‐fatality

C. Determinants of health, disease, and injury

Genetic, behavioral, socioeconomic, environmental, access to health care, quality of health care

D. Distribution of disease and injury

Person, place, time

E. Data sources

County/state/national vital statistics, active and passive public health surveillance


2.    Etiology, Benefits and Harms–Health Research Evaluation

Topic Areas                                                                             Illustrative Examples

A. Study designs

Surveys, observational studies, randomized clinical trials

B. Estimation ‐ magnitude of association

Relative risk/odds ratio, attributable risk percentage, number needed to treat, population impact measures

C. Inference

Statistical significance test, confidence intervals

D. Data quality

Accuracy, bias, confounding, error, interaction, precision

E. Data presentation

Interpretation of data, presentation of data in tables and graphs


3.    Evidence-Based Practice

Topic Areas                                                                            Illustrative Examples

A. Assessing the quality of the evidence

Types and quality of studies and relevance to target population

B. Assessing the magnitude of the effect

Incorporating benefits, harms, values

C. Nationally recognized guidelines

Standards, methods and grading criteria used for establishing guidelines


4.    Implementation of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Interventions

Topic Areas                                                                            Illustrative Examples

A. Types of prevention

Primary, secondary, tertiary

B. Target audience for direct interventions

Individuals, high risk groups, populations

C. Recognition of the effect of social determinants of health on the receipt of preventive services

Income, education, access to transportation, culture

D. Role of the clinician and interprofessional team in improving the health of populations

Education, incentives for behavior change, the role for genomics in clinical practice, advocacy (laws/policies; engineering/ environmental solutions)

E. Practice-based systems to aid with the provision of preventive services


Electronic records to remind clinicians and patients, outreach to patients using new technologies, home visits by community health/outreach workers, use and limitations of social media

F. Impact of a population health focus on the health of individuals and communities

Community based approaches to facilitate healthy weight and active lifestyles


5.   Determinants of Health

Topic Areas                                                                                Illustrative Examples

A. Impact of social factors on individual behaviors

Educational and employment opportunities, norms and attitudes, income

B. Impact on health of the unaltered environment, altered environment and built environment

Climate change, environmental contamination, built environment and community planning that supports active lifestyles

C. Impact of policy and law as determinants of health and disease

Zoning laws and the proximity of residential areas to sources of pollution, green space, and nutritious food; full-day kindergarten and high school completion programs to support educational attainment; tenant-based rental assistance programs to decrease crime.

D. Importance of health care as a determinant of health

Early detection, prenatal care, chronic disease management 

E. Relationship between human health, animal health and ecosystem health and implications for emerging infectious disease and geographic spread of disease

Antibiotic resistance, environmental changes and impact on humans and animals

6.   Population Health Informatics

Topic Areas                                                                                 Illustrative Examples

A. Collection and utilization of population health data to to assess population health, guide the provision of health care services and analyze health outcomes.

Shared data standards for information collected in electronic health records and community settings to better inform clinical practices and the community about the health status and needs of populations

B. Timely and accurate documentation and delivery of information about preventive services and reportable diseases to public health agencies

Use of electronic health records to track/report quality outcomes; the provision of preventive health services. 


7.   Evaluation

Topic Areas                                                                            Illustrative Examples

A. Process and outcome assessments

Measuring outcomes based on population health measures; compliance with legal and ethical principles

B. Decision analyses

Cost effectiveness, cost-benefit, and cost utility

C. Quality improvement processes

Patient safety; Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycle; clinical practice improvement (CPI); root cause analyses 


Component 2: Clinical Preventive Services and Health Promotion
Component 3: Clinical Practice and Population Health
Component 4: Health Systems and Health Policy





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