Greenwald, Anthony G., and Linda Hamilton Krieger. “Implicit Bias: Scientific Foundations”. California Law Review 94.4 (2006): 945–967.
This article provides the scientific background that is used in various forms of the implicit bias test, which shows humans are often unconscious of the biases (against specific racial groups but also on other groups) that affect their judgment and behavior.
An article that states racism is a determinant of health outcomes similar to smoking, unprotected sex, fatty foods, and environmental pollutants. However, initiatives to eliminate the impacts of racism are scarce. The slow progress has caused people of color to develop stresses associated with discrimination.
Vickie M. Mays, Susan D. Cochran, and Namdi W. Barnes Race, Race-Based Discrimination, and Health Outcomes Among African Americans Annu Rev Psychol. 2007; 58: 201–225.
This article presents scientific evidence that links societal racism and the experience of discrimination to the biological processes that lead to health inequities. Although it touches on the role of structural racism, the focus in on the mechanism by which individual experiences of racism find their way into biological outcomes.
Jules P. Harrell, Sadiki Hall, and James Taliaferro. Physiological Responses to Racism and Discrimination: An Assessment of the Evidence. American Journal of Public Health: February 2003, Vol. 93, No. 2, pp. 243-248.
This article presents an overview of the literature documenting negative physiological responses to racism and discrimination
James W. Collins, Jr, Richard J. David, Arden Handler, Stephen Wall, and Steven Andes. Very Low Birthweight in African American Infants: The Role of Maternal Exposure to Interpersonal Racial Discrimination. American Journal of Public Health: December 2004, Vol. 94, No. 12, pp. 2132-2138.
A case control trial demonstrating that African American women who deliver low birthweight infants are significantly more likely to have been exposed to high levels of lifetime racial discrimination than those not similarly exposed.
Elizabeth Brondolo , Nisha Brady ver Halen, Melissa Pencille, Danielle Beatty, Richard J. Contrada, Coping with racism: a selective review of the literature and a theoretical and methodological critique. Journal of Behavioral Medicine: February 2009, Volume 32, Issue 1, pp 64-88
This article describes how the experience of racism as a stressor affects health, and provides a framework for understanding coping mechanisms for addressing racism as a stressor. The article presents an overview of what is known about the role these coping mechanisms have in ameliorating the health effects of racism.