Structural Racism and Supporting Black Lives – The Role of Health Professionals
A perspective article centering structural racism and the role of health professionals—supporting black lives. The author challenges health professionals to do three things: 1) learn about, understand, and accept the United States’ racist roots, 2) understand how racism has shaped our narrative about disparities, and 3) define and name racism in healthcare and health services research.
Racism and Health I: Pathways and Scientific Evidence
David Williams and Selina Mohammed review scientific research that suggests that racism is a determinant of all health outcomes in communities of color. The article categorizes the sections in three parts: institutional racism, cultural racism, and psychological stress due to racism.
Citation: Williams, D. R., & Mohammed, S. A. (2013). Racism and Health I: Pathways and Scientific Evidence. American Behavioral Scientist, 57 (8), 1152-1173.
A 38 page workbook for facilitators teaching about structural racism. The workbook contains both text that introduces basic concepts and historical documentation of structural racism and a series of small group exercises that can be used to teach the material.
The Aspen Institute, Roundtable on Community Change | A glossary of terms related to structural racism that can be useful for clarifying the meaning of words that may mean very different things to different people. Useful for promoting a clear and rigorous debate in a classroom setting.
The elephant in the room: talking race in medical education
An article targeted to medical education institutions who ignore the larger context of race and racism. The author highlights the necessity for teaching race as a social construct, not race as a biological truth.
Incorporating Antiracism Coursework into a Cultural Competency Curriculum
A successful strategy for incorporating culture competence along with racism, power, and privilege into a curriculum to create a socially conscious educational environment for students in health care professions.
This article draws a distinction between cultural competence and skills and tools needed to address racial and ethnic disparities in care. The health status of racial and ethnic minorities may in part be affected by cultural practices, but the authors point out that race and ethnicity are distinct concepts, and that racism, poverty, power imbalances and violence all contribute to health disparities.
Melanie Tervalon, Jann Murray-García Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, Volume 9, Number 2, May 1998, pp. 117-125 An article directed towards medical education but relevant for all health professionals. This article makes the case that attitudes and skills, rather than knowledge of specific cultural practices, needs to be the focus of education to prepare health professionals to work with diverse populations.
Christopher N. DeGannes, M.D., FACP, Kamilah Woodson-Coke, Ph.D., Tanya Bender Henderson, Ph. D., Kathy Sanders-Phillips, Ph.D. Howard University. A small group exercise with a facilitators guide to increase awareness of cultural stereotypes
Med Educ. 2012 Jan;46(1):80-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2011.04101.x. Teal CR1, Gill AC, Green AR, Crandall S. A review of the conceptual framework and methods to teach health professions students about unconscious bias.
'Diversity' sounds polite and hopeful. It's how we talk when we can't talk about race, or when whites get nervous. By Ellen Berrey / Salon October 28, 2015. This journalist’s essay notes that diversity training can allow people to avoid some of the more serious and fundamental structural problems with racism in our society.
Med Educ. 2009 Mar;43(3):229-37. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2008.03269.x. Seeleman C1, Suurmond J, Stronks K.
This article provides a framework for teaching cultural competence to health professionals that goes beyond more simplistic and traditional notions of understanding, and identifies the scientific and social knowledge bases, and the competencies, needed to provide quality care to a diverse population
School of Education at Johns Hopkins University-"Allowing" Race in the Classroom: Students Existing in the Fullness of Their Beings
A professor discussing why teaching race, racism, and white privilege in majority white classrooms are essential to the learning environment for all groups. Students must challenge task of facing their privilege. Not only should students be aware that certain privileges may cause their life experiences to be easier, but they should be made mindful of the fact that students of color are always facing intentional and unintentional racism every day which affects their comfort and ability to learn.
“This article describes a project designed to change the climate of whiteness in academic nursing. Using an emancipatory, antiracist perspective from whiteness studies, we describe a project that helped faculty and staff to work together to challenge and begin to change the status quo of unnamed white privilege and racial injustice in nursing education.”
White Privilege Racism, White Denial & the Costs of Inequality
Brief: Part 1: Video: In this lecture, Tim Wise, an anti-racism activist, and writer, describes his personal experiences as a white man with white privilege and racism in America. He explains how white privilege damages not only people of color but white people as well. The video highlights many social constructs and the challenges people of color face in a white dominated country.
Part 2: A study guide designed to help professors and students engage and work through information presented in the video.
Link (1): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oV-EDWzJuzk Link (2): http://www.mediaed.org/discussion-guides/Tim-Wise-on-White-Privilege-Discussion-Guide.pdf
“For teachers working within homogeneous groups privileged by race and class, providing a critical multicultural education is of tremendous importance. A robust, diverse democracy depends not on self-interested, uncritical kids [students], but on young people who are willing to step outside of their comfort zones. To do that, students must understand how race and class influence their lives and want to work to make the world a better place.”
An article with suggestions to address white privilege in independent school environments. The questions and answers discussed in the article stem from previous conversations. By coming to appreciate the seriousness of the issue better, even persons with different ideological positions should be able to engage in meaningful discussion, and, as a result, agree to work together toward the creation of more equitable and inclusive school environments.
A health care professional training model consisting of three 3-hour sessions over a 3-month period. The first addressed race, the second addressed racism, and the third addressed whiteness. After the training, awareness of racism and white privilege increased in all participants.
A self-guided set of 8 modules, developed by the Unitarian Universalist Association, to help white people better understand their identity and their privileges. This is not specific to health nor to a professional audience, but the material can be adapted and is quite comprehensive.